Despite being a “Mega Bird Diversity” country, Birds of Indonesia are still faced with threats that could lead them to extinction. Basically, there are two types of threats for birds: direct and indirect threats. Direct threats can be caused by the biological character of the species such as low reproductive rate, long-term parental care; high utilization i.e. hunt (egg, nestling, adult): for consumption, trade (pet, hobbies, and other uses); natural predation and disease. Indirect threats include habitat loss, fragmented forest, land conversion, and restricted range because certain species require very specific habitat types (Prawiradilaga DM, 2020).

The ones we’re emphasizing here are the illegal activities which ironically, thrive in Indonesia. Poaching, smuggling, and trading are the threats for birds of Indonesia that happen almost every day. According to Nijman, Shepherd, Mumpuni, & Sanders (2012), among Southeast Asian nations, Indonesia stands out as a major leader in illegal trade and harvest across a wide range of species. Increasing demand for some species as pets has led to dramatic population declines. Bird-keeping has become a hobby for many Indonesians and also a sign of wealth, sophistication, and stature (Jepson, Ladle, & Sujatnika, 2011). Jepson and Ladle (2005) surveyed Indonesia’s five largest cities and found that nearly about 22% of all households owned at least one bird.

Based on TRAFFIC report (2016), Nearly 23,000 birds were recorded in five markets in Surabaya, Yogyakarta, and Malang during a three-day survey, with a clear indication that the vast majority were illegally taken from the wild. 28 of the 241 species were fully protected under Indonesian law, which means all hunting and trade are prohibited. They included seven Black-winged Mynas (Acridotheres melanopterus), a Critically Endangered species found only on Java and Bali, and a single Rufous-fronted Laughing thrush (Garrulax rufifrons), an endangered species found only in Java.






Chng, S.C.L. and Eaton, J.A. (2016). In the Market for Extinction: Eastern and Central Java. TRAFFIC. Petaling Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia.

Jepson, P., & Ladle, R. J. (2005). Bird-keeping in Indonesia: Conservation impacts and the potential for substitution-based conservation responses. Oryx, 39(04): 442–448. Retrieved from 5001110.

Jepson, P., Ladle, R. J., & Sujatnika (2011). Assessing market-based conservation governance approaches A socio-economic profile of Indonesian markets for wild birds. Oryx, 45(04): 482–491. doi:10.1017/S003060531100038X.

Nijman, V., Shepherd, C. R., Mumpuni, & Sanders, K. L. (2012). Over-exploitation and illegal trade of reptiles in Indonesia. Herpetological Journal, 22(2): 83–89.

Prawiradilaga, Dewi. (2020). Diversity and threats to endemic birds in the Wallacean region, Indonesia. IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science. 473. 012064. 10.1088/1755-1315/473/1/012064.